Embedded Signal Processing Laboratory

Prof. Brian L. Evans

bevans@ece.utexas.edu

05/21/14

1.0 Introduction

My research group develops theory and implementations for discrete-time signal processing for baseband communications and image display. When developing algorithms, we derive theory and incorporate implementation constraints. We keep in mind that our algorithms will ultimately be implemented in fixed-point data and arithmetic on targets that are constrained in memory size and memory input/output rates. We gather our algorithms, along with other leading algorithms, in freely distributable toolboxes in MATLAB that we release on the Internet. We also implement our algorithms in software and hardware in real-time testbeds with appropriate analog front ends. We evaluate tradeoffs in application performance vs. implementation complexity, first at a coarse level using desktop simulation, and then at a fine level using embedded targets. Targets include digital signal processors, x86 processors and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). My research group also develops system-level electronic design automation methods and tools for multicore embedded systems. A fundamental problem in multicore systems is the conflict between concurrency and predictability. To solve this conflict, we abstract the representation of software by using formal models of computation. We use the Synchronous Dataflow model and extend the Process Network model. Both models guarantee deadlock-free execution that will give the same results whether the program is run sequentially, across multiple cores, or across multiple processors. Both models are well suited for streaming discrete-time signal processing algorithms for baseband communications as well as speech, audio, image and video applications. We have released a distributed scalable framework in C++ for our Process Network model.

2.0 Discrete-Time Signal Processing for Baseband Communications

Mitigating interference. We have been researching the modeling and mitigation of co-channel interference, adjacent channel interference and computation platform noise to improve communication performance. These sources of radio frequency interference (RFI) are increasing over time due to increases in frequency reuse, subscribers, and computer performance. Our approach uses the same three statistical models to characterize RFI from a wide variety of sources. We have validated the models analytically and empirically. Each statistical model has two parameters. Based on estimates of the parameter values, we mitigate RFI in the physical layer to reduce bit error rate by a factor of 10-100. We hope to achieve a 10-100 times increase in network throughput by using our RFI models for medium access control. We are in the process of implementing our RFI modeling and mitigation algorithms on FPGAs in an RFI testbed. Here is more information about the project:

Multicarrier equalization. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) forms each symbol via an inverse fast Fourier transform (FFT). The symbol is periodically extended by copying the last few samples to the front of the symbol. The receiver often applies a channel shortening filter to reduce the effective channel impulse response to be no longer than the cyclic prefix. This allows frequency equalization to be performed in the FFT domain to reduce complexity. In ADSL, a channel shortening filter can increase the bit rate by 16x over not using one, for the same bit error rate. For ADSL, we developed the first channel shortening training method that maximizes a measure of bit rate and is realizable in real-time fixed-point software. Our algorithm doubled bit rate over the best training method at the time and only required a change of software in existing receivers. We also developed a dual-path channel shortening structure, which increased bit rate by another 20%. Here is more information about the project:

Multi-channel multicarrier communications testbed. We designed and implemented a testbed to empower designers to evaluate and visualize tradeoffs in communication performance vs. implementation complexity at the system level. The testbed uses a type of OFDM known as discrete multitone (DMT) modulation as found in ADSL systems, and has two transmitters and two receivers. The 2x2 DMT testbed can execute in real time using National Instruments embedded hardware over physical cables, or on the PC using cable models. Baseband processing for the physical and medium access control layers is in C++ and runs on an embedded x86 dual-core processor. The baseband code contains multiple algorithms for each of the following structures: peak-to-average power ratio reduction, echo cancellation, equalization, bit allocation, channel shortening, channel tracking and crosstalk cancellation. Crosstalk cancellation gives 90% of the gain in bit rate. The sponsor is retargetting the C++ code onto an embedded processor for their commercial system. Here is more information about the project:

Multiuser resource allocation. For long-term evolution of cellular and Wimax basestations, we developed the first algorithm to allocate subcarrier frequencies and power to multiple users that optimizes bit rates, has linear complexity, and is realizable in fixed-point hardware/software. These basestations transmit to all users at the same time by using a distinct subset of subcarrier frequencies for each user. The subsets are not necessarily contiguous. Optimal allocation of user subcarrier frequencies and power requires mixed-integer programming, which is computationally intractable for common scenarios (e.g. 1536 carrier frequencies and 30 users). Our algorithms are available for continuous and discrete rates, and apply to perfect or partial knowledge of channel state. Prior to our breakthrough, engineers relied on heuristics with quadratic complexity for sub-optimal resource allocation. Here is more information about the project:

3.0 Discrete-Time Signal Processing for Image Display

Image halftoning algorithms reduce image resolution in intensity and color to match those of the display. Examples include rendering a 24-bit color image on a 12-bit color display, or an 8-bit grayscale image on a binary device such as a reflective screen. One way to achieve the illusion of higher resolution is to push the quantization error at each spatial location and for each appropriate color channel into high frequencies where the human visual system is less sensitive. One such method, error diffusion, filters the quantization error at a pixel and feeds the result to unquantized pixels.

Image halftoning. For color halftoning by error diffusion, we have developed a unified theoretical framework, methods to compensate for the image distortion it induces, and methods for halftone quality assessment. The framework linearizes color error diffusion by replacing the color quantizer with a matrix gain plus an additive uncorrelated noise source. We then apply linear methods to compensate for image distortion, including vector-valued prefiltering to invert the signal transfer function and vector-valued adaptive filtering to reduce the visibility of color quantization noise. We compensate for false textures in the halftone (i.e. textures that are not visible in the original) by replacing the quantizer with a lookup table that flips the outcome near threshold values. All compensation methods have low enough complexity to be incorporated into a commercial printer or display driver. Here is more information about the project:

Video halftoning. For grayscale video halftoning, we have developed methods for assessing visual quality and compensating for temporal artifacts. We assess and compensate two key perceived temporal artifacts of dirty window effect and flicker that arise when displaying video halftones at 30 frames/s or less. At these rates, flicker between successive halftone frames will correspond to temporal frequencies at which the human visual system is sensitive. The primary application is displaying video on handheld devices. Here is more information about the project:

4.0 System-level Electronic Design Automation Tools for Multicore Embedded Systems

System on chip design. We automate the mapping of streaming signal processing tasks onto multicore processors to achieve high-throughput, low-latency and real-time performance. We model tasks using the Synchronous Dataflow (SDF) model of computation. An SDF program is represented as a directed graph, in which edges are first-in first-out queues of bounded size. Each node in the graph is enabled for execution when enough data values are available on each input. When node completes its execution, the data values produced on each output edge are enqueued. We address simultaneous partitioning and scheduling of SDF graphs onto heterogeneous multicore platforms to optimize throughput, latency and cost. We generate Pareto tradeoff curves to allow a system engineer to explore design tradeoffs in possible partitions and schedules. Case studies include an MP3 decoder. Here is more information about the SDF model of computation:

Scalable software framework. We realize high-throughput, scalable software on multicore processors by extending the Process Network (PN) model of computation. A PN program is represented as a directed graph, in which nodes are concurrent processes and edges are first-in first-out queues. Nodes map to threads. PN guarantees predictability of results regardless of the rates or order in which processes execute. Thus, correctness of a program does not depend on the use of explicit synchronization mechanisms, such as mutual exclusion. In PN, a queue could grow without bound. Our Computational PN (CPN) framework schedules programs in bounded memory when possible. To increase throughput, CPN decouples input/output management in the queues from computation in the nodes. C++ programs in our CPN framework automatically scale to multiple cores via thread scheduling by an operating system, such as Linux. The same CPN program can run on a single core or multiple cores, without any change to the code. Case studies include a 3-D beamformer. Here is more information about the project:

5.0 Brief Biography

Prof. Brian L. Evans is Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin. He is an IEEE Fellow "for contributions to multicarrier communications and image display". He has graduated 20 PhD students and 9 MS students, and published more than 200 refereed journal and conference papers. He received a 1997 US National Science Foundation CAREER Award in image and video processing systems.


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