Grassmannian Beamforming for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Wireless Systems


David J. Love, Robert W. Heath Jr, and Thomas Strohmer


Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Communications, Anchorage, AK, vol. 4, pg. 2618-2622, May 11-15, 2003.


Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems provide capacity much larger than that provided by traditional single-input single-output (SISO) wireless systems. Beamforming is a low complexity technique that increases the receive signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), however, it requires channel knowledge. Since in practice channel knowledge at the transmitter is difficult to realize, we propose a technique where the receiver designs the beamforming vector and sends it to the transmitter by transmitting a label in a finite set, or codebook, of beamforming vectors. A codebook design method for quantized versions of maximum ratio transmission, equal gain transmission, and generalized selection diversity with maximum ratio combining at the receiver is presented. The codebook design criterion exploits the quantization problem's relationship with Grassmannian line packing. Systems using the beamforming codebooks are shown to have a diversity order of the product of the number of transmit and the number of receive antennas. Monte Carlo simulations compare the performance of systems using this new codebook method with the performance of systems using previously proposed quantized and unquantized systems.

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