Exploiting Spatial Channel Covariance for Hybrid Precoding in Massive MIMO Systems


Sungwoo Park, Jeonghun Park, A. Y. Panah, Robert W. Heath, Jr.


IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 65, no. 14, pp. 3818 - 3832, Jul. 2017.


We propose a new hybrid precoding technique for massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems using spatial channel covariance matrices in the analog precoder design. Applying a regularized zero-forcing precoder for the baseband precoding matrix, we find an unconstrained analog precoder that maximizes signal-to-leakage-plus-noise ratio (SLNR) while ignoring analog phase shifter constraints. Subsequently, we develop a technique to design a constrained analog precoder that mimics the obtained unconstrained analog precoder under phase shifter constraints. The main idea is to adopt an additional baseband precoding matrix, which we call a compensation matrix. We analyze the SLNR loss due to the proposed hybrid precoding compared to fully digital precoding, and determine which factors have a significant impact on this loss. In the simulations, we show that if the channel is spatially correlated and the number of users is smaller than the number of RF chains, the SLNR loss becomes negligible compared to fully digital precoding. The main benefit of our method stems from the use of spatial channel matrices in such a way that not only is each user's desired signal considered, but also the inter-user interference is incorporated in the analog precoder design.