EE445L Microprocessor Applications and Organization Fall 2010  (9/9/10 version)
Course Catalog Description Microprocessor organization and interfacing; memory interfacing; hardware-software design of microprocessor systems; and applications, including communication systems.
Class: ACA 1.104, Monday, Wednesday, Friday 2-3pm
Office Hours: Tuesday 10am-11am, Wednesday 1-1:45pm, Friday  12noon-1pm (change of Monday to Tuesday)
Instructor: Jonathan W. Valvano, ENS627, 471-5141 
email:     (put "EE445L" in the email title, send no ZIP files) 
Web page:   
Text: Embedded Microcomputer Systems: Real Time Interfacing, 2nd Edition, ISBN 0534551629, Thomson 2006, by J. W. Valvano,  Cengage Learning Publisher's Website
Lab: ENS252A  
Unique Numbers:
16560 MW 9:00-10:30am,
16565 MW 10:30am-12noon,
16570 TTh 11:00am-12:30pm,
16575 MW 3:30-5:00pm,
16580 TTh 3:30-5:00pm,
16585 TTh 5:00-6:30pm,

Great TAs :
Lev Shuhatovich,  

Tim Van Ruitenbeek,

Raffaele Cetrulo,

Harshad Desai,

Reference materials on the web:  Lecture notes  Fall 2010 Laboratory Manual  Data sheets for devices used in EE445L  Starter files for EE319K, EE445L and EE345M  32 page CPU12 quick reference 
458 page CPU12 programming reference  9S12DP512 datasheet
 Tech arts board information  C programming manual  Old exams

Other references: For programming in C and digital logic, see the EE312 and EE316 texts     
Prerequisites: EE312 and EE319K with a grade of at least C- in each; EE411 and EE313, or BME311 and BME343, with a grade of at least C- in each; and credit with a grade of at least C- or registration for BME333T, or EE333T.
Specific EE319K topics needed for EE445L: LED interface, switch interface, busy-wait synchronization, serial communication concepts (start bit, data bits, stop bit, baud rate, bandwidth), 9S12DP512 SCI programming, analog to digital conversion (range, resolution, precision, accuracy), 9S12 ADC programming, digital to analog conversion (range, resolution, precision, accuracy), interrupt concepts (arm, enable, acknowledge, vector), 9S12 Output compare interrupt programming
Specific EE312 topics needed for EE445L: Modular programming, differences between pointers and numbers, when to use permanent allocation and when to use temporary allocation, definitions of char, short and long, understanding and use of static, const and volatile,  understanding call by value versus call by reference, stack frames, structures, linked lists, fifo queues, verification  
Specific EE411/EE313/EE438 topics needed for EE445L: RLC circuits, NPN and PNP transistors, input impedance, output impedance, linear amplifiers using op amps, oscilloscopes, sampling, frequency response, Bode Plots, Fourier Transform, spectrum measurements.
Teaching philosophy:  I strongly encourage students to take an active role in this class.  Questions are welcome before, during and after class. Please feel free to email, visit or call me if you have questions.
Specific Objectives of EE445L   The primary objective of EE445L is for the students to develop the ability to design microcomputer-based embedded systems. This class allows students to learn microcomputer interfacing from both a hardware and software perspective.
Microcomputer Architecture (EE319K review)
    An Introduction to the Microcomputer, 9S12DP512 Architecture, The 9S12 Instruction Set, 9S12 Addressing Modes, 9S12 Instructions, 9S12DP512 I/O and Memory Organization, The Memory Map of the 9S12DP512 
Programming Microprocessors (EE312, EE322C review)
    Data Structures in C (arrays, tables, linked lists, stacks, and fifo queues), Writing Quality Programs in C, Passing Parameters (Conceptual and Implementation Levels), Modular Programming, Verification and Testing, Documentation
Microcomputer Bus Interfaces
    Digital Hardware, Modules and Signals, Drivers, Registers, Timing equations, Timing diagrams, Address decoding, PROM, RAM interface
Parallel and Serial Input-Output
    9S12DP512 Parallel I/O Devices,  Device Driver Software, Buffered Input and Output,  Table and Linked List Interpreters, 9S12DP512 Synchronous and Asynchronous Serial Input-Output, Synchronization in I/O devices, Blind-Cycle Synchronization, Busy-Wait Synchronization, Interrupt Synchronization, Polled Interrupts, Vectored Interrupts, Interrupt Priority
Parallel Port Interfaces
    Keyboards, Key Debouncing, Keyboard Scanning Techniques, LED Scanning Techniques and LCD Interfacing
Data Acquisition Systems
    Op amp amplifiers, DAC, ADC,
Motor interfacing
    Stepper motors, DC motors, pulse-width modulation

Outcomes: After the successful conclusion of EE445L students should be able to design embedded systems including hardware/software interfaces for devices like LCD displays, motors, keyboards, analog sensors and speakers.
Attendance: Students are expected to attend lectures. The book covers more information than the class and we will use lectures to map our way through the book. If you miss class you may find it difficult to catch up.
Grading :    
        35% Laboratory
        5% Weekly multiple-choice online homework
        15% Quiz 1, closed book, Friday, October 8, 2:00 to 2:50 pm, ACA 1.104
        15% Quiz 2, open book, Friday, November 19, 2:00 to 2:50 pm, ACA 1.104
        30% Final, closed/open book, Saturday, December 11, 9am-12noon, regularly scheduled time and place
When studying, focus on the topics that apply to the 9S12 and the lab assignments.  You will find old quizzes and finals with solutions on the class web site.I have no expected grade cutoffs or expected GPA for this class. You can view the previous GPAs for most of your classes at UT (MyEdu reports I give a GPA in this class of 3.25).  All professors want a 5 on their teaching evaluation, and all students want an A. However, I feel both should only be awarded for excellence. 
Safety warnings: Due to the lead in most solder, please wash your hands after soldering, before eating or drinking. If you drop the soldering iron, let it fall to the ground. Do not try and catch it. If you are pregnant or think you might be pregnant, have someone else do the soldering.
Lab Partners: All labs should be performed with a partner. You and your lab partner must be registered for the same lab section. The lab partnership must be registered with your TA (a simple hand written note signed by both students will suffice) during the week of 8/30 to 9/2. Once registered, the partnership will continue. A partnership can be dissolved only after discussion with the TA. Both partners must be present during the demonstration. It is expected that both partners will contribute to all aspects of each lab, and both partners are expected to be present during the check out. The point values are the same for all labs.
  Lab 1e. ASCII to fixed-point output to LCD
  Lab 2g. Debugging, oscilloscope fundamentals, logic analyzer, dump profile
  Lab 3f. Alarm clock, LCD, key wakeup, and Output Compare interrupts
  Lab 4h. Stepper motor, output compare interrupts, finite state machine
  Lab 5h.12-bit DAC, SPI, Music player, audio amp 
  Lab 6h. Introduction to PCB Layout, PCB Artist (paper design only)
  Lab 7f. Temperature measurement, ADC, LCD
  Lab 8g. Design and Layout of an Embedded System
  Lab 9. Software Drivers for an Embedded System
  Lab 10g. ZigBee, SCI, distributed systems, level conversions
  Lab 11b. Final Design and Evaluation of Embedded System
EE445L Laboratory Schedule (see your TA for the latest). Each week there are two 90 minute lab sessions, which are scheduled Monday/Wednesday or Tuesday/Thursday. You will show the preparation to your TA at the beginning of the second session. During the first session demonstrations will be made. The TA will sign your software listing when you demonstrate your system. The report (hardware/software/data plots) is due Friday at the beginning of recitation. Any EE445L TA is authorized to checkout your lab.  Please consult with your TA for specific due dates for your lab section.

Lab Schedule This is an approximate schedule, please check the website for the latest version.


First session

Second session

Friday 2pm






no lab activities


Meet the TA

partners chosen, 1 Prep


Metrowerks demonstration, PCB Artist (SCH) demonstration


1 Demo**

2 Prep

1 Report

Oscilloscope demonstration (**no Labs on Labor Day)


2 Demo

3 Prep

2 Report

Logic analyzer demonstration


3 Demo

4 Prep

3 Report

Spectrum analyzer demo


4 Demo

5 Prep

4 Report

PCB Artist (PCB) demonstration


5 Demo

6h Prep


Quiz 1 is 10/8


6h Demo, 5 Report

7f Prep

6h Report



7f Demo

8 Prep

7f Report





First PCB due

Rough draft of SCH/PCB files due to TA at 2 pm Friday 10/20


8 Demo

9 Prep

8 Report

final SCH/PCB files due to TA at 2 pm Friday 11/5


9 Demo

10 Prep

9 Report

Lab 9 report is just the software

11/15 10 Demo    

Quiz 2 is 11/19


11 Prep,10 Report



week of thanksgiving



11 Demo

11 Report/Expo

Turn in equipment by 12/3

"8 Demo" means your PCB Artist files are delivered to the TA

**No Labor Day lab 9/6 (demo is due by second session)

Prep = you turn in your lab preparation
Demo = you demonstrate your lab to the TA
Partial = you demonstrate first part of a two-week lab to the TA
Report = you turn in your complete lab report to the TA
    During the week of 8/30 to 9/2, please go to your scheduled EE445L lab sessions in ENS252A to get a demonstration of the lab equipment.  If you did not have a 9S12 board, you must purchase one. Information on how to purchase a board can be found on the EE319K syllabus. Each student will have their own board.   Lab partners will be selected in your lab the week of 8/30 to 9/2. The lab preparations (hardware diagrams and syntax-free software source code printouts) are due at the beginning of your lab period. In other words, please type your software into the PC before lab. Attendance in lab is required. All software for lab, and tests must include comments. All hardware must include R&C values specifying tolerance and type (e.g., 5% carbon), and TTL chip numbers (be very specific e.g., 74LS00). Pin numbers are required only for lab, not for the exams.
    Students are encouraged to go to the last 1 hour of the other lab periods, but the first priority will be to the regular students. During the first 15 minutes of lab, the TA will collect preparations. For the next 15 minutes, the TA will lead a lab discussion session. The remaining lab time is available for debugging and lab checkout. At the end of the semester please verify with the checkout counter that your record is clear. All reports must be given to the TA by Friday December 3, 2pm.

This is an approximate schedule, please check the website for the latest version.





1, 2,

9S12 architecture, features of the 9S12DP512, fixed-point



Lab environment, run Lab1 project the real board and on Texas simulator, example decimal fixed point, debugging techniques, call graphs, flow charts, data flow graphs



Run Lab2 project, debugging techniques, and programming style, dumps, monitor



Draw pictures showing elements on the stack for Metrowerks compiler, debugging from an assembly language perspective, real time systems



Interface binary switch using pull-up resistor to an input port, draw flowchart of OC project, profiling with the scope showing just how small a percentage of time is spent in the background, globals/locals, static variables, threads, draw thread trace



Profiling, LCD Displays, HD44780 controller, blind cycle versus gadfly synchronization, show how to maintain time of day in OChan, allocation of tasks between the foreground and background


  Guest lecture from Texas Instruments



Digital logic, input/output voltage/current,  NPN transistor interface of a speaker, capacitive and inductive loads



Linked data structures, ROM-based structures using const, finite state machines, run Moore project,  fixed time delay using TCNT, adding output pins, adding input pins, running the FSM in the background using OC interrupts



FSM with functions, traffic example, stepper motors, full-step versus half-step algorithm, stepper interface electronics (L293, TIP120, IRF540), snubber diodes


7, 11

SPI/DAC interface, signal generation


4, 11

Output compare interrupts, real-time systems, MC34119 audio amplifiers



Sound waves, Quiz1 review



Embedded system layout, power, clock, reset, packaging



Linear amplifiers, input/output impedance



Quiz 1 in ACA1.104, covering material in Labs 1,2,3,4


11, 12

Resistance bridge, instrumentation amplifier, Butterworth filters,  


11, 12

Data Acquisition Systems, Nyquist Theorem, Aliasing


11, 12

Data Acquisition Systems, FFT

10/18 Lec17.pdf Sampling Jitter



Embedded Systems, power, packaging

10/22   Low power design



Input capture,  SCIB virtual serial port



Fifo queue analysis and robust software





Lec22.pdf Level conversions





Wireless communication






Timing diagrams and memory interfacing



Quiz 2 review

11/19   Quiz 2 in ACA1.104, covering material in Labs 5,6,7,8


 4, 7, 8

SPI-based LED graphics interface, fonts, double buffer



No class



PWM, motor interface



Final exam review



Lab 11 Product Demonstrations (in front of ENS)

All Lab reports are due to the TA at 2 pm



Turn in Lab Equipment so that checkout won’t bar your registration



Saturday, Final exam, 9am-12noon, Room regularly scheduled


Legal Stuff: The 12th class day is September 10. After this date, I will sign a drop only if the Dean approves it. Your current grade status must be a "C" or better for you to receive a "Q". Course evaluation is conducted on the last class day in accordance with the Measurement and Evaluation Center form. The final exam is at the time and place stated in the course schedule. The University of Texas at Austin provides upon request appropriate academic adjustments for qualified students with disabilities. For more information, contact the Office of the Dean of Students with Disabilities at 471-6259, 471-4241 TDD.
Religious Holy Days By UT Austin policy, you must notify me of your pending absence at least fourteen days prior to the date of observance of a religious holy day. If you must miss a class, an examination, a work assignment, or a project in order to observe a religious holy day, I will give you an opportunity to complete the missed work within a reasonable time after the absence.
Scholastic dishonesty: "Faculty in the ECE Department are committed to detecting and responding to all instances of scholastic dishonesty and will pursue cases of scholastic dishonesty in accordance with university policy. Scholastic dishonesty, in all its forms, is a blight on our entire academic community. All parties in our community -- faculty, staff, and students -- are responsible for creating an environment that educates outstanding engineers, and this goal entails excellence in technical skills, self-giving citizenry, an ethical integrity. Industry wants engineers who are competent and fully trustworthy, and both qualities must be developed day by day throughout an entire lifetime. Scholastic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, cheating, plagiarism, collusion, falsifying academic records, or any act designed to give an unfair academic advantage to the student. The fact that you are in this class as an engineering student is testament to your abilities. Penalties for scholastic dishonesty are severe and can include, but are not limited to, a written reprimand, a zero on the assignment/exam, re-taking the exam in question, an F in the course, or expulsion from the University. Don't jeopardize your career by an act of scholastic dishonesty. Details about academic integrity and what constitutes scholastic dishonesty can be found at the website for the UT Dean of Students Office and the General Information Catalog, Section 11-802." 
You are encouraged to study together and to discuss information and concepts with other students. You can give "consulting" help to or receive "consulting" help from such students in oral form. However, this permissible cooperation should never involve one student having possession of a copy of all or part of work done by someone else, in the form of an email, an email attachment file, a portable storage device, or a hard copy. Copying of any part of a program is cheating without explicit reference to its source. We do enter lab assignments turned in by EE445L students through a plagiarism checker, comparing them to assignments of this and previous semesters. If we find two programs that are copied, there will be a substantial penalty to both students, e.g., failure in the course. Students who cheat on tests or in lab will fail. Prosecution of cases is very traumatic to both the student and instructor. It is appropriate to use software out of the book, class website as long as all copy-pasted software is explicitly referenced. Copy-pasting software from current or past students is scholastic dishonesty. Policies concerning the use of other people's software in this class:
     I strongly encourage you to study existing software.
     All applications and libraries must be legally obtained. E.g.,
        You may use libraries that came when you bought a compiler.
        You may use software obtained from the web.
        You may copy and paste from the existing source code.
     You may use any existing source code that is clearly referenced and categorized:
        original: completely written by you,
        derived: fundamental approach is copied but it is your implementation,
        modified: source code significantly edited to serve your purpose,
        copied: source code includes minor modifications.
The University Honor Code is "The core values of the University of Texas at Austin are learning, discovery, freedom, leadership, individual opportunity, and responsibility. Each member of the University is expected to uphold these values through integrity, honesty, trust, fairness, and respect toward peers and community."
Online homework submission 
You can work together in groups of any size, but everyone enters a separate online solution. Other than breaking into the system and changing grades, you may get as much help from anyone in any way you please to complete the online homework.
Log into the Quest Homework Service at the URL   Click Get Started, log into with UT EID, select EE445L  

Download: Students' Instructions
Download:     First Homework   
STEP 3: Work one homework question.  Log in again and submit its answer before next class period.
STEP 4: Continue submitting answers until due time.
STEP 5: Download the solutions after due time.

Detailed Reading Guide for the Textbook

Basic computer organization
        Sections 1.1, 1.2, 1.6, 1.8.2
Design process
        Sections 1.3, 1.9
Digital logic
        Section 1.4
        Section 1.5.5
9S12 architecture
        Sections 1.7
Software development
        Sections 2.1, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5.3, 2.6, 2.9
        Section 2.10
Device driver, busy wait, SCI
        Sections 2.7, 3.4, 3.6 (just 9S12 in C)
Interrupt programming
        Sections 4.1-4.7, 4.14 (just 9S12 in C)
Input Capture
        Sections 6.1.1-6.1.3 (just 9S12 in C)
SCI interrupts
        Sections 7.5, 7.6.1 (just 9S12 in C)
SPI interfaces
        Sections 7.7.1, 7.7.3,, (just 9S12 in C)
Switches, keyboards, LEDs, LCD
        Sections 8.1, 8.2.1, 8.3.1, 8.3.4 (just 9S12 in C)
Stepper motors
        Sections 8.4, 8.6.1, 8.6.2, 8.6.3, 13.2.2 (just 9S12 in C)
Memory interfacing and timing
        Sections 9.1, 9.2.1, 9.2.2, 9.3, 9.4.1, 9.5.1, 9.5.2, 9.6.1,, (just 9S12)
Digital-to-analog converters
        Sections 11.4.1, 11.4.5, 11.4.6 (just 9S12 in C)
Analog-to-digital converters and position sensing
        Sections 11.5.1, 11.5.6, 11.10.2, 11.10.3, 12.1, 12.2.1-12.2.4 (just 9S12 in C)

Request samples (DIP or PDIP package) The parts labeled 1) 2)... 7) will be requested for you. In other words, we will make one request for the entire class. However, keep these web sites in mind as you design your Labs 8, 9,11. Do not order anything now; wait until you design Lab 8, and then order what you need. You will need register with an official University email address (e.g., rather than a junk email address (e.g., or For general information on getting free samples, see   Analog Devices
AD8032ANZ  rail-to-rail op amp Maxim IC

1) MAX539ACPA single 12-bit SPI interface DAC (ACPA or BCPA)

MAX1247ACPE+ 12-bit ADC, such as the  (A or B, with or without +)

MAX6225ACPA+  2.500V analog reference (with or without +) (ACPA or BCPA)
MAX5154ACPE dual 12-bit SPI interface DAC (ACPE or BCPE)  Texas Instruments
2) INA122P rail-to-rail instrumentation amp
3) OPA2350PA rail-to-rail dual op amp
) LM4041CILPR adjustable shunt reference
TLC2272ACP rail-to-rail dual op amp
TLC2274ACN rail-to-rail quad op amp   SamTec connectors
5) BCS-120-L-S-TE (need 1 for the $10 graphics LCD from BG Micro)
6) BCS-114-L-S-TE (need 1 for LCD from checkout)
7) SMH-125-02-G-D (need 2 for Lab 11)

Put your embedded system in a box OKW Enclosures Ltd Teko Enclosures Solutions PacTec Enclosures

Curious about my research? See